What’s with the Statue?

The Seated Boxer, an iconic ancient Greek work of art, shows a grizzled veteran of the ring, equal parts resigned and ready to spring into action. 

What I like is a sense of respite from competition, the powerful athletic physique and the tiredness that surrounds his humanity.  Is he a winner this day? Are there more fights to go?  How will his efforts be remembered?

These are questions that all of us encounter, in literal or figurative ways, in our daily efforts. 

Continue reading “What’s with the Statue?”

Reflections on Life from an Ocean Beach

Cape Cod

by George Santayana in 1894

The low sandy beach and the thin scrub pine,
The wide reach of bay and the long sky line,—
O, I am sick for home!
The salt, salt smell of the thick sea air,
And the smooth round stones that the ebbtides wear,—
When will the good ship come?
The wretched stumps all charred and burned,
And the deep soft rut where the cartwheel turned,—
Why is the world so old?
The lapping wave, and the broad gray sky
Where the cawing crows and the slow gulls fly,
Where are the dead untold?
The thin, slant willows by the flooded bog,
The huge stranded hulk and the floating log,
Sorrow with life began!
And among the dark pines, and along the flat shore,
O the wind, and the wind, for evermore!
What will become of man?

Risk Based Capital: A Timeless Analysis

This Jim Blaine classic post is an analysis of the distortion of the Federal Credit Union Act by  NCUA when imposing Risk Based Capital on credit unions. Board Member McWatters voted against the proposed and final rule stating NCUA lacked the authority for the regulation.

These critiques are even more relevant as NCUA continues to expand its interpretation by adding a CCULR capital option to RBC in December 2021.  The lack of legislative authority to do so was detailed in this analysis.

These critiques are important if future corrections are to be undertaken to credit union’s RBC/CCULR regulatory morass.  The following is Blaine’s original critique.


Risk-Based Capital: Commenting on Your Future -OVERRIDING CONGRESS!

(originally published 3/26/2014 and again July 15, 2016)
… in which NCUA moves from rule making to lawmaking!
Really can’t believe this !

Little different tack today in terms of reviewing NCUA’s member-punitive and professionally embarrassing proposed, risk-based capital (RBC) regulation.  

We have taken a look at how NCUA’s “we-know-better-than-everybody-else-despite-our-track-record” approach to RBC will 1) deter member mortgage lending, 2) damage MBL lending, and 3) severely limit safe CU investments, forcing unnecessarily lower savings returns on CU members.  All proposed with utter disregard for the new, lower RBC standards now already in place for all other federally insured depository institutions. 

Today let’s look at how NCUA has decided to independently override the U.S. Congress and federal law with the new RBC proposal.  Have always noted how proud NCUA was of being “an independent agency of the Federal government”, but it had never occurred to me that NCUA believes it is independent of Congress – and above the law.

Congress is such a bother to
an independent federal Agency!

Here’s how NCUA intends to override Congress. In Section 216 of the 1998 Credit Union Membership Act (“HB 1151”), Congress specifically and purposefully wrote into the Federal Credit Union Act (FCUA) a series of mandatory “net worth” categories and prompt corrective action (PCA) requirements.  Congress defined statutorily that a credit union was “well capitalized” if its net worth was >7%, “adequately capitalized” if its net worth was >6% but <7%, etc – five categories in all. Congress wrote into the FCUA statute a very, very clear definition of “net worth” – nothing accidental nor haphazard about what Congress meant by “net worth”, nor how it was to be used to determine CU capital levels. 

NCUA through a sleight-of-hand (which they hope you won’t notice!) has rewritten the Congressional definition of “well-capitalized” for CUs. 

Let’s take a look at the proposed RBC reg:

NCUA is becoming
 thoroughly Pinnochioan …

“The proposal would change the title of Sect. 702.102 from “Statutory net worth categories” to “Capital classifications”.  NCUA believes that replacing the term “net worth” with the general term “capital categories” better describes the combined “net worth ratio” and “risk-based net worth” measurements that make up the five categories listed in the statute.  Moreover, the term “capital” is generally more inclusive of all accounts available to pay losses than the term “net worth” and is more commonly used in the financial services industry. No substantive changes to the requirements of Sect. 216(c) are intended by these changes in terminology.” 

 “[Several sections of 216] of the

“It’s growing…!!

 Federal Credit Union Act (FCUA) use the term “risk-based net worth” requirement, NCUA believes that replacing the term “risk based net worth” with the functionally equivalent term “risk-based capital” in the proposed rule would better describe the equity and assets the requirement would measure.  No changes to the requirements of the statute are intended by the alternative term…”

NCUA’s RBC comes with
strings already attached…

Now I’m sure that didn’t make any sense at all to most of you, because you’re nice, reasonable straight-forward kind of folks – unlike the folks  who wrote this proposed regulation. So, let’s break it down

Under current law:  Credit unions with net worth > 7% are “well capitalized”.  Under the current risk-based net worth (RBNW) formula, if a credit union is determined to be “complex”, it may be required to hold additional capital (none of even the 25 largest CUs are required to hold capital above their statutory net worth and most are not complex under current RBNW standards).

Under the proposed reg:  NCUA unilaterally has 1) decreed that all CUs with assets > $50 million are complex! No test, no evaluation – as now required by the FCUA – to determine if a CU is simple or complex.  NCUA simply changes a Congressionally approved law to make you complex regardless of your balance sheet risk; and then since you are complex(!), NCUA imposes its new RBC regime requirements on your CU.

Weaseling Congress !
(… robustly !!)

Here’s the weasel, NCUA is attempting to change the Congressionally legislated definition of  “well capitalized” to:

“To be well-capitalized a credit union must maintain a net worth ratio of 7% or greater and, if a complex credit union, (which NCUA has defined as all CU with assets >$50 million) must have a risk based capital ratio of 10.5% or greater…”  

NCUA’s proposed RBC reg flies in the face of express Congressional intent under the FCUA. You can always spot a weasel when you read phrases like:

1. “… replacing the term “net worth” with the term “capital categories” better describes…” – That’s a Weasel!
2. “… no substantial changes … are intended…” – That’s a weasel!
3.  “… replacing the term “risk-based net worth” with the functionally equivalent term “risk-based capital”… – That’s a weasel!
4. “… the term “capital” is generally more inclusive… and is more commonly used in the financial services industry …” – That’s a weasel!
5. Changing “if you are complex” to “you are complex”… – That’s a weasel!
6. “… no changes to the requirements of the statute are intended…” – That’s a weasel!

Shouldn’t we – on behalf of our 100+ million member-owners – demand that Congress make changes, if necessary, to credit union statutes, …

… and not have to deal with these weasels?


Deification: The Eighth Wonder of the Cooperative World

(by Jim Blaine)

Must be the high season for letters of recommendation – those succinct summaries of superlatives for men and women of distinction.  This time around the injured party is Maurice Ravelle Smith. The pantheon of choice: The Cooperative Hall of Fame sponsored by the National Cooperative Business Association (NCBA) and its’ international arm, the Cooperative League of the USA (CLUSA).

For those not in the know, NCBA/CLUSA is the 106 year-old trade/advocacy organization for all forms of cooperatives – producer, consumer, worker, purchasing, service, and social cooperatives, including credit unions. At heart the members of NCBA/CLUSA are an eccentric, motley crew of die-hard idealists, with an organizational vision “to build a better world and a more inclusive economy”. Well, they certainly have their work cut out for them!

As you might imagine, NCBA/CLUSA does not accept any run-of-the-mill folks into the Cooperative Hall of Fame. Leaders of the usual sort need not apply, something more is expected – statesmanship, lasting achievement, cooperative advancement, distinct recognition. Exceptional leadership is the standard – the real thing.

“Deifying” the Movement

Maurice Smith is the real thing. While Mr. Smith’s service as CEO of Local Government Federal Credit Union – and in numerous leadership roles at CUNA, Co-op Bank and on the boards of his local university, hospital and church – is remarkable; what is exceptional about Mr. Smith is his success in “deifying” the credit union movement. The Bible has its “Ten Commandments” and until recently the credit union movement had its “Seven Cooperative Principles”. Now it has eight! The fault lies with Mr. Smith.

The eighth cooperative principle for credit unions is: “Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion” (DEI) – a disruptive idea fraught with complex challenges in a world stubbornly fractured by loyalties to clan, tribe, sect, nation, class, and heritage. Suspicion is often the norm. Is this an opportunity or a problem?  Fresh or “woke”?

The path forward, off-road, but on track, is awkward, tense, and uncertain – a tight wire perhaps, without safety net. Who in his right mind would lead us purposefully out over the abyss? Only a man of conscience, a noble and courageous leader, with a strong sense of justice. DEI will definitely challenge most of us, challenge us to cooperate, challenge us to change.

Tack and Tact

One sailing against the prevailing wind must tack, a leader fomenting change must have tact. Always courteous, considerate, and polite, Maurice Smith was able to achieve this revolutionary credit union change without uprising or revolt, because he is trusted by his peers and respected by all for his integrity.

Life is not the way it is supposed to be, it’s the way it is.  Just take a look around. The way you chose to deal with life and people makes all the difference.

It’s unfortunate   our best path forward at this time is DEI. Too bad we can’t simply honor and accept each other for who we are. But at least in the short run, DEI will force us to focus on our differences, in hopes that in the long run we will recognize we aren’t.

You have noticed that all those different colored M&M’s all taste the same, haven’t you?  Perhaps in the future, the eighth cooperative principle will become “dignity, equanimity and intelligence”, which are higher human standards and an apt description of Maurice Ravelle Smith!

Maurice Smith grew up in Southport, North Carolina. I have known him for over 40 years as a colleague and friend. He is a model of good manners. His mother – he still calls her daily! – and his father reared him to honor his roots and to always sow seeds for the future. The success of their lessons is apparent. Maurice Smith is an exceptional human being – the real thing.

Mr. Smith, through his DEI-fication of credit unions, has sowed the seeds for the continued success of our cooperative movement…let’s hope it is a bountiful crop!

And it will be, if you and I cooperate…


Returning to the Office for Naked Fridays

(from Jim Blaine)

(“Last blush”… for an old favorite!)

Let’s go forward courageously; and forthrightly deal with the most important issue confronting the Credit Union Movement. No, it’s not taxation, the banks, CFPB, nor the NCUA. Our most pressing challenge is “dress down Fridays” or “business casual” if you prefer.

Business-casual – actually “business sloppy” is a good bit more descriptive – has become a fashionable idea in some credit union circles. Many progressive Boards and managers, who support the wind whichever way it blows, have adopted this new benchmark for professional attire. The “new look”fits well on the revisionists’  list of “new age” credit union principles – few, of which, are worth dying for.

Proponents assert that the new dress standards create a more relaxed work environment; make employees feel more comfortable; boost morale; and are strongly supported by the membership. Yeah, un-huh! I guess the best that can be said for this type of slender logic is that it’s only mildly “robust”!

It truly comes as a surprise to some of us that we are supposed to feel all “cozy and comfy” at work and should treat our duties in a relaxed, casual manner.

Maybe we have misunderstood all along the realities of the modern workplace.  We really must have things backwards!  False Assumption Number One must be the belief that “our” job actually belongs to the credit union – and its membership. False Assumption Number Two must be the belief that we are employed and paid to do what is necessary and required, not what’s convenient and comfortable. False Assumption Number Three must be that we are engaged in an extremely competitive, take no prisoners service business. And, False Assumption Number Four must be that our members expect, and are demanding, more from us – not less.

Old Fogey! Old Fogey! I can hear you crowing all the way from here! But, let’s compromise. If dressing down is truly good for the Credit Union Movement, let’s really go for it! Let’s take it to the limit with the ultimate Dress Down Day – Naked Fridays! It could work wonders with the membership! For example, Naked Fridays will definitely build member traffic; grousing about long lines will decline; and no one will ever again notice if a teller fails to smile.

This idea was broached recently with our staff.

Their reaction broke down into two distinct groups: those who were indignant and those who were very indignant! There were some surprises, however, among the actual responses. Older employees, figuring they had more to gain than lose, unanimously supported the proposal. Female employees were particularly difficult to convince. They did not object, in general, to the concept; but argued forcefully for a pay differential since they felt they added greater value. Equally disruptive, the female staff adamantly refused to pledge not to giggle around their male co-workers!

One previously ardent advocate for “business sloppy” became particularly incensed when she was asked how she would feel about coming to work on Fridays naked. It was an innocent enough question; but she became enraged; started yelling wildly; and pointed her finger decisively at me. I won’t tell you what she said, nor which finger she was pointing; let’s just say it wasn’t very pretty!“Communications” around the Credit Union were, at least, “really good” for a week or so…

Although a final decision has not been made, we probably will not go forward with the “Naked Friday” idea. There are just too many unresolved questions. Y’know the devil is always in the details. For example, would it be appropriate to ask or comment about a co-worker’s previously unrevealed tattoos?  Does failure to look a co-worker in the eye constitute sexual harassment? Should items dropped on the floor be picked up? It all just gets too complicated!  Besides, the Accounting Department started cautioning about higher heating and maternity leave costs. They’re always so drudgingly practical! The Internal Auditors did feel, interestingly, that the absence of pockets might help improve internal controls.

And, Marketing – bless their hearts – tried to stay upbeat with slogans such as: “We’ll give you the shirt off our backs” and“No Hidden Fees; No Hidden Costs; No Hidden Anything!”

We did have a couple of “King Solomons” who proposed several “simple solutions”. One was the “just blue jeans alternative”. But it was quickly killed, because most of us are of such an age that we are painfully aware of how we now look in blue jeans. We understand that we are the reason that overall denim sales have soared while the number of pairs sold has remained constant.

Another alternative suggested was organization-wide leisure suits (lime green, no less!), but fortunately clearer thinking prevailed.

Others called for “Theme Days”, when we would all dress alike around a common idea. This suggestion held much support until the wags began calling for Lady Gaga Mondays, Tacky Tuesdays, Dress-in-Drag Wednesdays, and No Bath, No Makeup Thursdays. And, lastly, for what it’s worth, I tried not to take it personally when that outraged employee, previously mentioned, called pointedly for “Idiot Days”.

Oh, well, who knows? Maybe we will eventually find an answer. Until that time, I guess we’ll continue to operate as though each of us truly needs our job; as though what each of us does is vital to the success of the Credit Union; as though being fashionably average is not good enough; as though Credit Unions are not a competitively protected class; and as though we’re here to raise the standard, not “lower the bar”.

As to employee morale, it seems you can’t pay those who work for money too little and you can’t pay those who work out of pride too much. Nor can you teach someone to care. Granted, it’s a lot harder to be something more, than to be something less; and life is never going to be comfortable when you’re trying to make a difference.


Old fashioned? You bet, ’cause “this ain’t no party, this ain’t no disco, this ain’t no foolin’ around…”

(originally published August 29,2016)

Leonardo’s Horse: A Vision Outlasting Its Creator

Sometimes important, well-conceived ideas do not at first succeed. But if they truly inspire, sooner or later the vision will be fulfilled.

Leonardo da Vinci was a Renaissance master, a student of almost every area of knowledge being practiced. A painter, architect, designer of war machines, statues and inveterate keeper of notebooks recording every area his curiosity took him.

In 1482 he was commissioned to create a bronze horse statue by the Duke of Milan to be a gift to the Duke’s father, Francessco Sforza. The statue would be the largest ever cast requiring over 70 tons of bronze and standing 26 feet high.

Leonardo prepared by writing a treatise on horses’ movements, their anatomy and how he might balance a figure in motion, with just two of the four legs on the ground. In 1493 he made a full size clay stature of his design. He developed a unique engineering process recorded in his notes. The statue was to be cast in two halves and then joined together.

Full details of the sculpture.

Unfortunately, his patron gave the bronze collected for the sculpture to the Italian defenders of the city of Milan after it was attacked by an invading French army. The Italians lost, the clay model was used for archery practice by the French, and subsequently destroyed by weathering.

End of Story?

No, 500 years later a United Airlines pilot and art collector Charles C. Dent read about Leonardo’s vision in the September 1977 edition of National Geographic. He founded a non-profit to bring da Vinci’s vision to reality for his hometown of Allentown, PA. He died before the vision could be realized. His nephew took over the foundation and hired an experienced animal sculptor, Nina Akuma, to explore da Vinci’s drawings to create a fully realized instantiation. Two full size casts were made, one placed in Milan, Italy and the second commissioned by Frederik Meijer. (additional details)

It was this second horse I saw  on a visit to the Frederik Meijer Gardens and Sculpture Park in Grand Rapids, MI.

Although based on decades of Leonardo’s artistic work, it is today named the American Horse. The sight is truly majestic with the entire bronze weight supported by only the two opposite hooves. Its monumental standing is accentuated by the grass and tree sheltered green amphitheater which it alone inhabits.

The Promise of a Vision

Today the credit union vision is just over a century old. There have been almost 50,000 state and federal charters issued, of which 4,950 are still active. The challenge as in the artistic effort to recreate Leonardo’s horse, is what is core to the vision today? What is timeless in cooperative design  as it evolves in subsequent environments?

And is the design more than a single expression or does it require a “system” (as in Leonardo’s workshop) to support individual credit unions?

The commission that inspired Leonardo’s vision lasted long after its creator and sponsor left the scene. However the vision was so well conceived, that new artistic pioneers were motivated to fulfill the work, albeit in a contemporary context.

There is I believe a parallel with cooperative design. It is well conceived by founders, but requires contemporary architects  to ensure its relevance and sustainability for future generations.

The Best Sermon in Life Is the One You Live

(from Jim Blaine)

          Fred Byrd 

Fred Byrd has passed away at the age of 87.  Fred Byrd started out life as one of eight children, son of a hardscrabble sharecropper in rural Hoke County, North Carolina.  The funeral was held Saturday at Rock Springs Missionary Baptist Church – standing room only.

Might say that 70 or 80 years ago in the rural South, that the “odds for success” were not exactly stacked in Fred Byrd’s favor; but Fred Byrd was a remarkable man.  Loved by many, admired and respected by all.

Fred Byrd was faithful in his mission in life to his five children, his church, his extended family reunion association, his friends and to his work. Those things Fred touched with his life were always improved; he wasn’t always necessarily the leader, but he was always in-charge. The Minister said one of Fred’s favorite pastimes was talking.  Fred was plain-spoken and freely shared his thoughts and opinions with others – whether you were ready or not! With Fred Byrd, you didn’t have to wonder what he thought or felt. Fred didn’t shirk his responsibility “to counsel” you when you needed it. The Minister said Fred even counseled him on his sermons: “Keep it simple and, most importantly, don’t take all day!”

Fred Byrd counseled me often over the years; it was always advice well worth getting. I distinctly remember our “first session”…. 

You probably need to know that Fred Byrd’s career was as the supervisor of housekeeping at a very large, state-operated mental hospital in Raleigh. A challenging task with numerous employees, 3-shifts, 7x24x365 operations in an environment which required not only great skill, but also great flexibility, discretion and compassion. Fred Byrd was definitely the right man for the job; he cared about everything. Fred took his work, his life very, very personally.

But Fred Byrd, true to his roots, also worked a second job at the CU keeping our house in order. One evening Fred dropped by the office and said: “Mr. Blaine (I immediately knew I was in trouble!), could I speak with you a moment about the trash?” You want to “talk trash” to me Fred? “That’s not what I said!  I don’t want to talk trash to you; I want to talk about your trash!”(This was really not looking good…)

Fred told me that he knew that I brought in fast food for lunch everyday and ate in the office. Fred was into GPS tracking long before the technology was invented! He noted that the bag and remaining cup of ice from the soft drink ended up in the trashcan nearby. Fred pointed out that by the end of the day that the ice had melted and created quite a problem and a mess for his folks. Fred said softly that he was sure that this was just an oversight and something that had never occurred to me (and it hadn’t); and would I mind emptying out the ice in a sink before discarding it? Fred was looking me dead in the eyes as he “counseled” me. And then he made the lesson stick:

“Mr Blaine, there is no reason, there can be no justification for any of us to make life purposefully more difficult for someone else.”
In life, I have received no finer “counsel”.

In closing the funeral, as the casket was rolled down the aisle to the strains of “I’ll Fly Away”, the Minister had one final thought about the man Fred Byrd:

“Your best sermon in life is the one you live…”
Amen, Brother Fred…. and thank you, …
Thank you for your “sermon”.

Being a Leader: Where is Kristian Christian When Members Need Her?

Bank Transfer Day.   It was a national headline PR story and marketing tsunami in 2011. The activity was started by a young woman who took action when Bank of America began charging fees because her combined balances were less than $20,000.

The person behind this movement was Kristian Christian.  She stepped up because she believed  bank executives were “out of touch” with their customers.  Her example raises a question: do credit unions need her activism even more today?

The Bank Transfer Day Story

The time was the fall of 2011.   The worst of the 2008/09 Great Recession was over.  Banks were being held to account by regulators.  Customers were paying the price.

Two brief videos that capture this movement’s moment.  The first is a 6:26 minute video from the news program Democracy Now on November 9, 2011.   The report estimates that as many as 700,000 people may have transferred money by the November 5th transfer date in response to Christian’s call to action.

In this news interview Christian also tells how she started  by  just sending a Facebook post to her 500 followers and asking them to join.

The second video from Christian, one year later in November 2012, gives an update on the  results and describes some of the online attacks she experienced.  Her message is for activism to succeed, it requires initiative and courage.

Where Grass Roots Efforts Are Needed Today

In the first video, Christian says banking executives were disconnected from the people they were meant to serve.  She urged her “followers” to seek out a not-for-profit credit union or community bank and transfer their funds to these locally-focused institutions.

Today might Christian see this same situation where  some credit union CEO’s and boards seem totally removed from their own member-owners?

In recent  years  a number of credit union members have experienced the merger of their sound, long serving coop justified with only rhetorical statements about the future.  But also creating immediate benefits and payouts for the initiators.   In several cases the CEO’s promised to stay in leadership roles to oversee their former members’ interests only to bail out within the year.

Here is one member’s comment on a merger vote completed this month:

Have asked several times for the actual voting numbers and have been told that no one has then and if they did they would not share them.
 Have you ever voted and not known the voting results? Employees from SEFCU were asked what they’re shirt sizes were for the new logo well before voting even ended. Also that it would become legal as of August 1 . Again before the end of voting. Whole thing smells !!!!

In another case, the Chair and CEO transferred $10 million dollars of members’ capital to a newly formed private “foundation” under their control as part of the merger.   According to  IRS form 990, the FCCU2 is a private foundation holding assets$11,973,971 at 2021 yearend.  The $2.0 million increase in assets occurred in less than 6 months. There is no mission statement, operational activity or officers listed in the Guidestar (Candid) report from the IRS (EIN: 87-1724276).

The Fix Is In

Credit union boards have ignored or stifled efforts for members to participate in the annual election of directors.  Virginia Credit Union is a well-publicized example because some members  challenged the status quo and submitted nominations.  The credit union turned a blind eye to their efforts and the disenfranchised members went public.

Few credit unions today actively encourage or seek board candidates.   Annual elections have become moot as internal nominations just equal the number of open seats.

The democratic governance model has been converted to a self-perpetuating board oligarchy.

Solution: Credit Union Transfer Day

Christian’s effort shows there is nothing more powerful than an engaged person who wants to change the world.

How might her example empower credit union members who feel overlooked by their coop’s leaders?

Should they identify another credit union willing to open their doors to persons seeking a responsive coop?  Transfer their money?   Refinance their loans or shift their direct deposits?

Christian’s method was simple: vote with your funds. Do something, not just complain.  Let your personal network know what you have done and ask then to support your position.

In 2013, Christian again stepped up by joining over 6,000 credit union supports to sign a petition to the White House to “Choose NCUA leaders who Understand Cooperatives” when making appointments to the Board.

Maybe concerned members should contact Christian to see what she is doing today?




Leadership: Woven from a Different Fabric

(from Jim Blaine)

It’s a bit difficult to explain to folks who never met him, what “a force of nature” Ed Callahan was as a person. 

 He had an unusual instinct for listening to difficult issues, considering alternatives and options, and then “cutting to the chase”- clearly, decisively, on-point.

When leaving his position as NCUA Chair in 1984, he wrote a “Farewell Address” to President Regan about his view of the credit union movement. 

For those looking for a defense against unnecessary taxation, a rebuke against inept and intrusive regulation, or a simple, concise statement of the hope and promise of “the credit union alternative”, Ed Callahan’s message still rings true:

“The only threat to credit unions is the bureaucratic tendency to treat them, for convenience sake, the same as banks and savings and loans.  This is a mistake, for they are made of a different fabric.  It is a fabric woven tightly by thousands of volunteers, sponsoring companies, credit union organizations and NCUA – all working together.”

“Credit union boards of directors have made, and will continue to make, individual and collective decisions from their vantage point on the front lines of the marketplace.”

When left alone, they return to what they do best; providing basic financial services to their members on the most convenient and cost-effective terms possible.”

Credit Unions: Woven From A Different Fabric.

(Originally published July 2013)